Whetstone Park is in Clintonville, Ohio at geographic coordinates 40.044504, -83.021355. This park is multipurpose and supports activities such as biking, hiking (including lease free dog areas), athletics, and much more. This park is primarily dominated by forests but also has a small constructed wetland, prairie, and open areas for recreation. Additionally, there is a garden planted with a large variety of roses. The park is along the Olentangy River and has a few streams running through it that creates a lot of riparian habitat. Below is a map of the study area.


Pawpaw (Asimina triloba)

Pawpaw is typically found growing in groups in the shaded understory of a forest. It is the only member of the family Annonaceae native to North America. It is well known for its fruit (which tastes kinda like a banana), as it is the largest native to North America.

Ohio Buckeye (Aesculus glabra)

This tree is very near and dear to all Ohio State students! Buckeye trees lose their leaves earlier in the fall than a lot of trees. They have distinct leaves (see left picture) and their buds are large and feel sharp/pointy if pushed on.

Woody Vines

Bur Cucumber (Sicyos angulatus)

Bur cucumber uses tendrils for climbing and clinging as it grows. The flowers attract a wide array of insects interested in the plants nectar. The foliage from this plant is edible, as are the fruits (though they have little nutritional value). Finally, extractions from this plant can be used to treat Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI’s).

Virginia Creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia)

Virginia creeper can be detrimental to other plants by forming thick mats that shade other species and damaging sapling trees by being too heavy. It is commonly planted near buildings because they can cling to brick walls with their tendrils. The shade produced by the plants keeps the structure cooler.

Flowering  Plants

Asiatic Dayflower (Commelina communis)

White Snakeroot (Ageratina altissima)


Poison Ivy (Toxicodendron radicans)

Poision Ivy is most commonly recognized by having 3 leaves. Theres leaves often are serrate but have some variance. Poison Ivy is a vine, often seen climbing up the sides of trees. The vines are hairy and can be very large. Despite being a nuisance to humans, poison ivy is the sole food source for the poison ivy sawfly.


Wart Lichen (Pertussaria multipunctoides)

Common Greenshield Lichen (Flavopunctelia flaventior)

Whetstone Park Full Plant List (CC)


White ash – Fraxinus americana (6)

Silver maple – Acer saccharinum (3)

American basswood – Tilia americana (6)

Mulberry – Morus rubra (7)

Pawpaw – Asimina triloba  (6)

Ohio Buckeye – Aesculus glabra (6)

Blacklocust – Robinia psuedoacacia  (0)

Eastern redcedar – Juniperus virginiana (3)

Sugar Maple – Acer saccharum  (5)

Box Elder – Acer negundo (3)

Sycamore – Platanus occidentalis (7)

Black Walnut – Juglans nigra  (5)


Shrubs and Woody Vines                                                                    

Amur honeysuckle – Lonicera mackii  (0)

Riverbank grape – Vitis riparia  (3)

Virginia creeper – Parthenocissus quinquefolia  (2)

Poision Ivy – Toxicodendron radicans  (1)

Roundleaf Greenbrier – Smilax rotundifolia (4)



Common Burdock – Arctium minus  (0)

blue wood-aster – Symphyotrichum cordifolium (4)

leafcup – Polymnia Canadensis  (5)

Wintercreeper – Euonymus fortune  (0)

Spotted touch-me-not – Impatiens capensis  (2)

Lady’s thumb – Persicaria persicaria  (0)

Ground-ivy – Glechoma hederacea  (0)

Wood nettle – Laportea canadensis  (5)

Maple-leaved waterleaf – Hydrophyllum canadense (5)

Black snakeroot – Sanicula marilandica   (3)

Wingstem – Verbesina alternifolia   (5)

Narrow-leaved cattail – Typha angustifolia  (0)

White sweetclover – Melilotus albus  (0)

Yellow floatingheart – Nymphoides peltata (0)

Cup plant – Silphium perfoliatum  (6)

Canada Goldenrod – Solidago canadensis  (1)

Giant foxtail grass – Setaria faberi  (0)

Creeping woodsorrel – Oxalis corniculata  (0)

Wild senna – Senna marilandica  (4)

Climbing false buckwheat – Fallopia scandens (2)

Wild Carrot – Daucus carota  (0)

Bur cucumber – Sicyos angulatus  (3)

Common dayflower – Commelina communis  (0)

White snakeroot – Eupatorium rugosum  (2)

White clover – Trifolium repens  (0)

High CC Species

Mulberry (Morus rubra) – 7

Mulberries are very important food sources for birds and small mammals. They have a large crop of desirable berries. Their seeds are dispersed through animal feces, allowing them to disperse great distances. Native Americans used Mulberry for laxatives and a worming agent.

American Basswood (Tilia americana) – 6

American Basswood trees can grow to be 120 feet tall and live almost 200 years. They are beneficial to pollinators, especially bees that make desirable basswood honey. Additionally, their seeds and bark are eaten by a variety of small mammals. Some species of caterpillar are only found eating basswood leaves!

Low CC Species

Ground Ivy (Glechoma hederacea) – 0

Ground Ivy is a nonnative species from Europe. It is an aggressive invasive weed that cannot be easily removed because of an extensive root system. However, it is edible and aromatic (maybe we could harvest and eat it as a means of removal?)

Common Burdock (Arctium minus) – 0

Don’t get this one confused with rhubarb! Burdock is an invasive from Europe and is not edible. It has a very deep taproot which enables it to comeback after removal. It disperses its seeds by hooking on to animals or people (You know, those giant “burs” that end up on you every time you walk through a wild area).

In order to calculate FQAI, I selected equation 8 from Andreas et al. I chose this because it includes all species surveyed (there were an abundance of nonnative plants sampled) and is less sensitive to sampling effort. The equation is as follows:

I” = Σ (CCi) /N

The equation was applied in excel to get modified FQAI: 2.71